|active voice||one of two voices in English; a direct form of expression where the subject performs or "acts" the verb; see also passive voice|
eg: "Many people eat rice"
|adjective||part of speech that typically describes or "modifies" a noun|
eg: "It was a big dog."
|adjective clause||seldom-used term for relative clause|
or phrase that adds information to a sentence and that can be removed
from the sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical|
eg: I met John at school.
|adverb||word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb|
eg: quickly, really, very
|adverbial clause||dependent clause that acts like an adverb and indicates such things as time, place or reason|
eg: Although we are getting older, we grow more beautiful each day.
|affirmative||statement that expresses (or claims to express) a truth or "yes" meaning; opposite of negative|
eg: The sun is hot.
|affix||language unit (morpheme) that occurs before or after (or sometimes within) the root or stem of a word|
eg: un- in unhappy (prefix), -ness in happiness (suffix)
(also known as "concord")
|logical (in a grammatical sense) links between words based on tense, case or number|
eg: this phone, these phones
phrase or clause that is replaced by a pronoun (or other substitute)
when mentioned subsequently (in the same sentence or later)|
eg: "Emily is nice because she brings me flowers."
|appositive||noun phrase that re-identifies or describes its neighbouring noun|
eg: "Canada, a multicultural country, is recognized by its maple leaf flag."
|article||determiner that introduces a noun phrase as definite (the) or indefinite (a/an)|
of some verb forms that relates to duration or completion of time;
verbs can have no aspect (simple), or can have continuous or progressive
aspect (expressing duration), or have perfect or perfective aspect
(also called "helping verb")
|verb used with the main verb to help indicate something such as tense or voice|
eg: I do not like you. She has finished. He can swim.
form of the verb (no indication of tense, mood, person, or aspect)
without the particle "to"; typically used after modal auxiliary verbs;
see also infinitive|
eg: "He should come", "I can swim"
|base form||basic form of a verb before conjugation into tenses etc|
eg: be, speak
|case||form of a pronoun based on its relationship to other words in the sentence; case can be subjective, objective or possessive|
eg: "I love this dog", "This dog loves me", "This is my dog"
that causes things to happen such as "make", "get" and "have"; the
subject does not perform the action but is indirectly responsible for it|
eg: "She made me go to school", "I had my nails painted"
|clause||group of words containing a subject and its verb|
eg: "It was late when he arrived"
of an adjective or adverb made with "-er" or "more" that is used to
show differences or similarities between two things (not three or more
eg: colder, more quickly
|complement||part of a sentence that completes or adds meaning to the predicate|
eg: Mary did not say where she was going.
|compound noun||noun that is made up of more than one word; can be one word, or hyphenated, or separated by a space|
eg: toothbrush, mother-in-law, Christmas Day
|compound sentence||sentence with at least two independent clauses; usually joined by a conjunction|
eg: "You can have something healthy but you can't have more junk food."
|concord||another term for agreement |
in English where one action depends on another ("if-then" or "then-if"
structure); most common are 1st, 2nd, and 3rd conditionals|
eg: "If I win I will be happy", "I would be happy if I won"
show the different forms of a verb according to voice, mood, tense,
number and person; conjugation is quite simple in English compared to
many other languages|
eg: I walk, you walk, he/she/it walks, we walk, they walk; I walked, you walked, he/she/it walked, we walked, they walked
|conjunction||word that joins or connects two parts of a sentence|
eg: Ram likes tea and coffee. Anthony went swimming although it was raining.
that has meaning in a sentence, such as a verb or noun (as opposed to a
structure word, such as pronoun or auxiliary verb); content words are
stressed in speech|
eg: "Could you BRING my GLASSES because I've LEFT them at HOME"
(also called "progressive")
|verb form (specifically an aspect)
indicating actions that are in progress or continuing over a given time
period (can be past, present or future); formed with "BE" + "VERB-ing"|
eg: "They are watching TV."
|contraction||shortening of two (or more) words into one|
eg: isn't (is not), we'd've (we would have)
|countable noun||thing that you can count, such as apple, pen, tree (see uncountable noun)|
eg: one apple, three pens, ten trees
|dangling participle ||illogical structure that occurs in a sentence when a writer intends to modify one thing but the reader attaches it to another|
eg: "Running to the bus, the flowers were blooming." (In the example sentence it seems that the flowers were running.)
|declarative sentence||sentence type typically used to make a statement (as opposed to a question or command)|
eg: "Tara works hard", "It wasn't funny"
|defining relative clause|
(also called "restrictive relative clause")
clause that contains information required for the understanding of the
sentence; not set off with commas; see also non-defining clause|
eg: "The boy who was wearing a blue shirt was the winner"
|pronoun or determiner that indicates closeness to (this/these) or distance from (that/those) the speaker|
eg: "This is a nice car", "Can you see those cars?"
of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb but does not form a
complete thought and cannot stand on its own; see also independent clause|
eg: "When the water came out of the tap..."
|determiner||word such as an article or a possessive adjective or other adjective that typically comes at the beginning of noun phrases|
eg: "It was an excellent film", "Do you like my new shirt?", "Let's buy some eggs"
|direct speech ||saying what someone said by using their exact words; see also indirect speech|
eg: "Lucy said: 'I am tired.'"
|direct object||noun phrase in a sentence that directly receives the action of the verb; see also indirect object|
eg: "Joey bought the car", "I like it", "Can you see the man wearing a pink shirt and waving a gun in the air?"
that is not in normal question form with a question mark; it occurs
within another statement or question and generally follows statement
eg: "I don't know where he went," "Can you tell me where it is before you go?", "They haven't decided whether they should come"
|finite verb ||verb form that has a specific tense, number and person|
eg: I work, he works, we learned, they ran
|first conditional||"if-then" conditional structure used for future actions or events that are seen as realistic possibilities|
eg: "If we win the lottery we will buy a car"
piece of a sentence used alone as a complete sentence; a fragment does
not contain a complete thought; fragments are common in normal speech
but unusual (inappropriate) in formal writing|
eg: "When's her birthday? - In December", "Will they come? - Probably not"
|function||purpose or "job" of a word form or element in a sentence|
eg: The function of a subject is to perform the action. One function of an adjective is to describe a noun. The function of a noun is to name things.
(also called "future progressive")
|tense* used to describe things that will happen in the future at a particular time; formed with WILL + BE + VERB-ing|
eg: "I will be graduating in September."
|future perfect||tense* used to express the past in the future; formed with WILL HAVE + VERB-ed|
eg: "I will have graduated by then"
|future perfect continuous||tense* used to show that something will be ongoing until a certain time in the future; formed with WILL HAVE BEEN + VERB-ing|
eg: "We will have been living there for three months by the time the baby is born"
|future simple ||tense*
used to describe something that hasn't happened yet such as a
prediction or a sudden decision; formed with WILL + BASE VERB|
eg: "He will be late", "I will answer the phone"
|gerund||noun form of a verb, formed with VERB-ing|
eg: "Walking is great exercise"
|gradable adjective||adjective that can vary in intensity or grade when paired with a grading adverb ; see also non-gradable adjective|
eg: quite hot, very tall
|grading adverb||adverb that can modify the intensity or grade of a gradable adjective|
eg: quite hot, very tall
|hanging participle ||another term for dangling participle |
|helping verb ||another term for auxiliary verb |
|imperative||form of verb used when giving a command; formed with BASE VERB only|
eg: "Brush your teeth!"
|indefinite pronoun ||pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and "not definite".|
eg: anything, each, many, somebody
(also called "main clause")
|group of words that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence; see also dependent clause|
eg: "Tara is eating curry.", "Tara likes oranges and Joe likes apples."
|indirect object||noun phrase representing the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb; see also direct object|
eg: "She showed me her book collection", "Joey bought his wife a new car"
|indirect question||another term for embedded question |
(also called "reported speech")
|saying what someone said without using their exact words; see direct speech|
eg: "Lucy said that she was tired"
|infinitive||base form of a verb preceded by "to"**; see also bare infinitive|
eg: "You need to study harder", "To be, or not to be: that is the question"
|inflection||change in word form to indicate grammatical meaning|
eg: dog, dogs (two inflections); take, takes, took, taking, taken (five inflections)
word that expresses emotion but has no grammatical value; can often be
used alone and is often followed by an exclamation mark|
eg: "Hi!", "er", "Ouch!", "Dammit!"
|interrogative||(formal) sentence type (typically inverted) normally used when asking a question|
eg: "Are you eating?", "What are you eating?"
|interrogative pronoun ||pronoun that asks a question.|
eg: who, whom, which
|intransitive verb||verb that does not take a direct object; see also transitive verb|
e.g. "He is working hard", "Where do you live?"
|inversion||any reversal of the normal word order,
especially placing the auxiliary verb before the subject; used in a
variety of ways, as in question formation, conditional clauses and
agreement or disagreement|
eg: "Where are your keys?","Had we watched
the weather report, we wouldn't have gone to the beach", "So did he",
"Neither did she"
see irregular verbs list
|verb that has a different ending for past tense and past participle forms than the regular "-ed"; see also regular verb|
eg: buy, bought, bought; do, did, done
|lexicon, lexis ||all of the words and word forms in a language with meaning or function|
|lexical verb||another term for main verb |
|linking verb||verbs that connect the subject to more information (but do not indicate action), such as "be" or "seem"|
|main clause ||another term for independent clause |
(also called "lexical verb")
|any verb in a sentence that is not an auxiliary verb; a main verb has meaning on its own|
eg: "Does John like Mary?", "I will have arrived by 4pm"
(also called "modal")
|auxiliary verb such as can, could, must, should etc; paired with the bare infinitive of a verb|
eg: "I should go for a jog"
|modifier||word or phrase that modifies and limits the meaning of another word|
eg: the house => the white house, the house over there, the house we sold last year
type that indicates the speaker's view towards the degree of reality of
what is being said, for example subjunctive, indicative, imperative|
|morpheme||unit of language with meaning; differs from "word" because some cannot stand alone|
e.g. un-, predict and -able in unpredictable
|multi-word verb ||verb that consists of a basic verb + another word or words (preposition and/or adverb)|
eg: get up (phrasal verb), believe in (prepositional verb), get on with (phrasal-prepositional verb)
|negative||form which changes a "yes" meaning to a "no" meaning; opposite of affirmative|
eg: "She will not come", "I have never seen her"
|nominative case||another term for subjective case |
|non-defining relative clause|
(also called "non-restrictive relative clause")
clause that adds information but is not completely necessary; set off
from the sentence with a comma or commas; see defining relative clause|
eg: "The boy, who had a chocolate bar in his hand, was still hungry"
|non-gradable adjective||adjective that has a fixed quality or intensity and cannot be paired with a grading adverb; see also gradable adjective|
eg: freezing, boiling, dead
|non-restrictive relative clause||another term for non-defining relative clause |
|noun||part of speech that names a person, place, thing, quality, quantity or concept; see also proper noun and compound noun|
eg: "The man is waiting", "I was born in London", "Is that your car?", "Do you like music?"
|noun clause||clause that takes the place of a noun and cannot stand on its own; often introduced with words such as "that, who or whoever"|
eg: "What the president said was surprising"
|noun phrase (NP) ||any
word or group of words based on a noun or pronoun that can function in a
sentence as a subject, object or prepositional object; can be one word
or many words; can be very simple or very complex|
eg: "She is nice", "When is the meeting?", "The car over there beside the lampost is mine"
|number||change of word form indicating one person or thing (singular) or more than one person or thing (plural)|
eg: one dog/three dogs, she/they
|object||thing or person affected by the verb; see also direct object and indirect object|
eg: "The boy kicked the ball", "We chose the house with the red door"
|objective case||case form of a pronoun indicating an object|
eg: "John married her", "I gave it to him"
|part of speech||one of the classes into which words are divided according to their function in a sentence|
eg: verb, noun, adjective
|participle||verb form that can be used as an adjective or a noun; see past participle, present participle|
|passive voice||one of two voices in English; an indirect form of expression in which the subject receives the action; see also active voice|
eg: "Rice is eaten by many people"
(also called "simple past")
|tense used to talk about an action, event or situation that occurred and was completed in the past|
eg: "I lived in Paris for 10 years", "Yesterday we saw a snake"
|past continuous||tense often used to describe an interrupted action in the past; formed with WAS/WERE + VERB-ing|
eg: "I was reading when you called"
|past perfect||tense that refers to the past in the past; formed with HAD + VERB-ed|
eg: "We had stopped the car"
|past perfect continuous||tense
that refers to action that happened in the past and continued to a
certain point in the past; formed with HAD BEEN + VERB-ing|
eg: "I had been waiting for three hours when he arrived"
form (V3) - usually made by adding "-ed" to the base verb - typically
used in perfect and passive tenses, and sometimes as an adjective|
eg: "I have finished", "It was seen by many people", "boiled eggs"
|perfect||verb form (specifically an aspect); formed with HAVE/HAS + VERB-ed (present perfect) or HAD + VERB-ed (past perfect) |
category that identifies people in a conversation; there are three
persons: 1st person (pronouns I/me, we/us) is the speaker(s), 2nd person
(pronoun you) is the listener(s), 3rd person (pronouns he/him, she/her,
it, they/them) is everybody or everything else|
|personal pronoun||pronoun that indicates person|
eg: "He likes my dogs", "They like him"
|phrasal verb||multi-word verb formed with a verb + adverb|
eg: break up, turn off (see phrasal verbs list)
NB: many people and books call all multi-word verbs "phrasal verbs" (see multi-word verbs)
or more words that have a single function and form part of a sentence;
phrases can be noun, adjective, adverb, verb or prepositional|
a noun or form indicating more than one person or thing; plural nouns
are usually formed by adding "-s"; see also singular, number|
eg: bananas, spoons, trees
|position||grammatically correct placement of a word form in a phrase or sentence in relation to other word forms|
eg: "The correct position for an article is at the beginning of the noun phrase that it describes"
|positive||basic state of an adjective or adverb when it shows quality but not comparative or superlative|
eg: nice, kind, quickly
|possessive adjective ||adjective (also called "determiner") based on a pronoun: my, your, his, her, its, our, their|
eg: "I lost my keys", "She likes your car"
|possessive case ||case form of a pronoun indicating ownership or possession|
eg: "Mine are blue", "This car is hers"
|possessive pronoun ||pronoun that indicates ownership or possession|
eg: "Where is mine?", "These are yours"
|predicate||one of the two main parts (subject and predicate) of a sentence; the predicate is the part that is not the subject|
eg: "My brother is a doctor", "Who did you call?", "The woman wearing a blue dress helped me"
|prefix||affix that occurs before the root or stem of a word|
eg: impossible, reload
|preposition||part of speech
that typically comes before a noun phrase and shows some type of
relationship between that noun phrase and another element (including
relationships of time, location, purpose etc)|
eg: "We sleep at night", "I live in London", "This is for digging"
|prepositional verb||multi-word verb that is formed with verb + preposition|
eg: believe in, look after
|present participle||-ing form of a verb (except when it is a gerund or verbal noun)|
eg: "We were eating", "The man shouting at the back is rude", "I saw Tara playing tennis"
|present simple (also called "simple present")||tense
usually used to describe states and actions that are general, habitual
or (with the verb "to be") true right now; formed with the basic verb (+
s for 3rd person singular)|
eg: "Canada sounds beautiful", "She walks to school", "I am very happy"
|present continuous (also called "present progressive")||tense used to describe action that is in process now, or a plan for the future; formed with BE + VERB-ing|
eg: "We are watching TV", "I am moving to Canada next month"
that connects the past and the present, typically used to express
experience, change or a continuing situation; formed with HAVE + VERB-ed|
eg: "I have worked there", "John has broken his leg", "How long have you been in Canada?"
|present perfect continuous||tense used to describe an action that has recently stopped or an action continuing up to now; formed with HAVE + BEEN + VERB-ing|
eg: "I'm tired because I've been running", "He has been living in Canada for two years"
|progressive||another term for continuous |
that replaces a noun or noun phrase; there are several types including
personal pronouns, relative pronouns and indefinite pronouns|
eg: you, he, him; who, which; somebody, anything
|proper noun||noun that is capitalized at all times and is the name of a person, place or thing|
eg: Shakespeare, Tokyo, EnglishClub.com
|punctuation||standard marks such as commas, periods and question marks within a sentence|
eg: , . ? ! - ; :
|quantifier||determiner or pronoun that indicates quantity|
eg: some, many, all
|question tag ||final part of a tag question; mini-question at end of a tag question|
eg: "Snow isn't black, is it?"
|question word ||another term for WH-word |
|reciprocal pronoun||pronoun that indicates that two or more subjects are acting mutually; there are two in English - each other, one another|
eg: "John and Mary were shouting at each other", "The students accused one another of cheating"
|reduced relative clause|
(also called "participial relative clause")
similar to a relative clause, but containing a participle instead of a
finite verb; this construction is possible only under certain
eg: "The woman sitting on the bench is my sister", "The people arrested by the police have been released"
|reflexive pronoun||pronoun ending in -self or -selves, used when the subject and object are the same, or when the subject needs emphasis|
eg: "She drove herself", "I'll phone her myself"
see regular verbs list
|verb that has "-ed" as the ending for past tense and past participle forms; see also irregular verb|
eg: work, worked, worked
|relative adverb ||adverb that introduces a relative clause; there are four in English: where, when, wherever, whenever; see also relative pronoun|
|relative clause||dependent clause that usually starts with a relative pronoun such as who or which, or relative adverb such as where|
eg: "The person who finishes first can leave early" (defining), "Texas, where my brother lives, is big" (non-defining)
|relative pronoun||pronoun that starts a relative clause; there are five in English: who, whom, whose, which, that; see also relative adverb|
|reported speech||another term for indirect speech |
|restrictive relative clause||another term for defining relative clause |
|second conditional||"if-then" conditional structure used to talk about an unlikely possibility in the future|
eg: "If we won the lottery we would buy a car"
|sentence||largest grammatical unit; a sentence must always include a subject (except for imperatives) and predicate;
a written sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full
stop/period (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!); a sentence
contains a complete thought such as a statement, question, request or
eg: "Stop!", "Do you like coffee?", "I work."
|series||list of items in a sentence|
eg: "The children ate popsicles, popcorn and chips"
of a noun or form indicating exactly one person or thing; singular
nouns are usually the simplest form of the noun (as found in a
dictionary); see also plural, number|
eg: banana, spoon, tree
where a word or phrase comes between the particle "to" and the verb in
an infinitive; considered poor construction by some|
eg: "He promised to never lie again"
|Standard English (S.E.)||"normal" spelling, pronunciation and grammar that is used by educated native speakers of English |
|structure word ||word
that has no real meaning in a sentence, such as a pronoun or auxiliary
verb (as opposed to a content word, such as verb or noun); structure
words are not normally stressed in speech|
eg: "Could you BRING my GLASSES because I've LEFT them at HOME"
of the two main parts (subject and predicate) of a sentence; the
subject is the part that is not the predicate; typically, the subject is
the first noun phrase in a sentence and is what the rest of the
sentence "is about"|
eg: "The rain water was dirty", "Mary is beautiful", "Who saw you?"
also called "nominative"
|case form of a pronoun indicating a subject|
eg: Did she tell you about her?
rare verb form typically used to talk about events that are not certain
to happen, usually something that someone wants, hopes or imagines will
happen; formed with BARE INFINITIVE (except past of "be")|
eg: "The President requests that John attend the meeting"
|subordinate clause||another term for dependent clause |
|suffix||affix that occurs after the root or stem of a word|
eg: happiness, quickly
|superlative, superlative adjective ||adjective or adverb that describes the extreme degree of something|
eg: happiest, most quickly
|SVO||subject-verb-object; a common word order where the subject is followed by the verb and then the object|
eg: "The man crossed the street"
|syntax||sentence structure; the rules about sentence structure|
construction with statement that ends in a mini-question; the whole
sentence is a tag question; the mini-question is a question tag; usually
used to obtain confirmation|
eg: "The Earth is round, isn't it?", "You don't eat meat, do you?"
of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present
or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when
the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be
used to talk about the present or the future.|
conditional structure used to talk about a possible event in the past
that did not happen (and is therefore now impossible)|
eg: "If we had won the lottery we would have bought a car"
|transitive verb||action verb that has a direct object (receiver of the action); see also intransitive verb|
eg: "The kids always eat a snack while they watch TV"
(also called "mass nouns" or "non-count")
|thing that you cannot count, such as substances or concepts; see also countable nouns|
eg: water, furniture, music
|usage||way in which words and constructions are normally used in any particular language|
|V1, V2, V3 ||referring to Verb 1, Verb 2, Verb 3 - being the base, past and past participle that students typically learn for irregular verbs|
eg: speak, spoke, spoken
|verb||word that describes the subject's action or state and that we can change or conjugate based on tense and person|
eg: (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin
|voice||form of a verb that shows the relation of the subject to the action; there are two voices in English: active, passive |
using a WH-word and expecting an answer that is not "yes" or "no";
WH-questions are "open" questions; see also yes-no question|
eg: Where are you going?
(also called "question word")
|word that asks a WH-question; there are 7 WH-words: who, what, where, when, which, why, how|
|word order ||order or sequence in which words occur within a sentence; basic word order for English is subject-verb-object or SVO |
|yes-no question ||question to which the answer is yes or no; yes-no questions are "closed" questions; see also WH-question|
eg: "Do you like coffee?"
|zero conditional||"if-then" conditional structure used when the result of the condition is always true (based on fact)|
eg: "If you dial O, the operator comes on"